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Journal Articles

Book Chapters



Williams, P.R.D., von Stackelberg, K., Lopez, M.G.G, and Sanchez-Triana, E. 2021. Risk analysis approaches to evaluating health impacts from land-based pollution in low- and middle-income countries. Risk Analysis. In Press.


von Stackelberg, K., and Williams, P.R.D. 2020. Evolving science and practice of risk assessment. Risk Analysis.

Niemeier, R.T., Williams, P.R.D., Rossner, A., Clougherty, J., and Rice, G. 2020. A cumulative risk perspective for occupational health and safety (OHS) professionals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17: 1–19.

Rossner, A., Williams, P.R.D., Mellas-Hulett, E., Rahman, M.A. 2020. Analysis of historical worker exposures to respirable dust from talc mining and milling operations in Vermont. Annals of Work Exposures and Health. 64: 416–429.


Fries, M., Williams, P.R.D., Ovesen, J., and Maier, A. 2018. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 15: 531–540.


Maier, A., Williams, P.R.D., and Dotson, G.S. 2017. Risks in combination: addressing cumulative risk in the occupational environment.  The Synergist. May: 30-34.


Rhomberg, L.R., Goodman, J.E., Tao, G., Zu, K., Chandalia, K., Williams, P.R.D., Allen, B., and Albertini, R. 2016. Evaluation of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia and its subtypes with updated benzene exposure and mortality estimates: A lifetable analysis of the Pliofilm cohort. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 58: 414-420.


Williams, P.R.D., and Mani, A. 2015. Benzene exposures and risk potential for vehicle mechanics from gasoline and petroleum-derived products. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B. 18: 371–399.

Lentz, T.J., Dotson, G.S., Williams, P.R.D., Maier, M.A., Gadagbui, B., Pandalai, S.P., Lamba, A., Hearl, F., and Mumtaz, M. 2015. Aggregate and cumulative risk assessment – integrating occupational and non-occupational risk factors. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 12 Suppl 1: S112-126.

Williams, P.R.D. 2015. Applying risk analysis to two divisive topics: hydraulic fracking and marijuana use. Risk Analysis. 35(5): 762-765.


Williams, P.R.D. 2014. An analysis of violations of OSHA’s (1987) occupational exposure to benzene standard. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B. 17: 259-283.

Williams, P.R.D. 2014. MTBE and other VOCs in public water systems, private wells, and ambient groundwater wells in New Jersey compared to regulatory and human-health benchmarks. Journal of Environmental Forensics. 15: 97-119.


Williams, P.R.D., and Unice, K.  2013.  Field study of air exchange rates in northern highlands of Peru.  Journal of Environmental Forensics.  14: 215-229.

Williams, P.R.D., Sahmel, J., Bunge, A.L, Knutsen, J., and Spencer, J2013.  Letter to the Editor: Comments on Petty et al. (2011), “A quantitative method for estimating dermal benzene absorption from benzene-containing hydrocarbon liquids,” IJOEH, 17:287-300.  International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health.  19 (2): 139-146.

von Stackelberg K.  2013.  Decision analytic strategies for integrating ecosystem services and risk assessment.  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 9(2):260-268,

von Stackelberg K, Buonocore J, Bhave PV and Schwartz J. 2013.  Public health impacts of secondary particulate formation from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. Environmental Health,

von Stackelberg K.  2013.  Review Article. A systematic review of carcinogenic outcomes and associated mechanisms from exposure to concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA in the environment. Journal of Toxicology,


Williams, P.R.D., Dotson, G.S., and Maier, A.  2012.  Cumulative risk assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.  Environmental Science and Technology.  46:10868-10874.

Boelter, F.W., Williams, P.R.D., Heckman, B., Rossner, A., Ripple, S., Mair, A., and Dotson, G.S.  2012.  Risk assessment’s new era.  Part 4: roadmap for integrating risk and decision making into industrial hygiene.  The Synergist.  23 (7): 30-32.

Williams, P.R.D., Dotson, G.S., and Maier, A.  2012.  Risk assessment’s new era.  Part 2: evolving methods and future directions.  The Synergist.  23 (5): 46-48.


Williams, P.R.D.  2011.  MTBE in California’s public drinking water wells: have past predictions come true?  Journal of Environmental Forensics.  13:270-289.

Williams, P.R.D., Sahmel, J., Knutsen, J., Spencer, J., and A.L. Bunge.  2011.  Dermal absorption of benzene in occupational settings: estimating flux and applications for risk assessment.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  41:111-142.


Levy J, Buonocore J and K von Stackelberg. 2010.  Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion.  Environmental Health 9:65-doi:10.1186/1476-069X-9-65,


von Stackelberg, K. and J. Hammitt.  2009.  Use of contingent valuation to elicit willingness-to-pay for the benefits of developmental health risk reductions.  Environmental and Resource Economics. 43(1):45-51.

Williams, P.R.D., Inman, D., Aden, A., and Heath, G.  2009.  Environmental and sustainability factors associated with next-generation biofuels in the U.S.: what do we really know?  Environmental Science & Technology.  43:4763-4775.

Williams, P.R.D., and J. S. Pierce.  2009.  Overview of MTBE detections in public drinking water supplies in the United States.  Journal of Environmental Forensics.  10:33-50.

Richter, R.O., Finley, B.L., Paustenbach, D.J., Williams, P.R.D., and P.J. Sheehan.  2009.  An evaluation of short-term exposures of mechanics to asbestos during automotive and truck brake cleaning and machining activities.  Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.  19:458-474.  (Advance online publication 30 July 2008).


von Stackelberg, K., Vorhees, D., Moore, D., Cura, J. and T.S. Bridges.  2008.  Evaluation of sources of uncertainty in risk assessments conducted for the US Army using a case study approach. Integrated Assessment and Environmental Management 4(1):41-60.

Williams, P.R.D., Panko, J.M., Unice, K., Brown, J.L., and D.J. Paustenbach.  2008.  Occupational exposure associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene.  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.  5:55-574.


von Stackelberg, K., M. Nelson, B. Southworth and T. Bridges.  2007.  An evaluation of risk drivers from a sample of risk assessments conducted for the US Army. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 13(5):1053-1077.

Williams, P.R.D., Paustenbach, D.J., Balzer, J. L., and C. Mangold.  2007.  Retrospective exposure assessment of airborne asbestos related to skilled craftsmen at a petroleum refinery in Beaumont, Texas (1940–2006).  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Part A).  70:1076-1107.

Williams, P.R.D., Phelka, A.D., and D.J. Paustenbach.  2007.  A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940–2006).   Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Part B).  10:319-377.

Williams, P.R.D., Knutsen, J.S., Atkinson, C., Madl, A.K., and D.J. Paustenbach.  2007.  Airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the historical use of some formulations of Liquid Wrench®.  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.  4:547-561.


Williams, P.R.D., Patterson, J., and D.W. Briggs.  2006.  VCCEP pilot: progress on evaluating children’s risks and data needs.  Risk Analysis.  26:781-801.


Goyal, A., Small, M., von Stackelberg, K., Burmistrov, D., and Jones, N.  2005.  Estimation of Fugitive Lead Emission Rates from Secondary Lead Facilities using Hierarchical Bayesian Models.  Environmental Science and Technology, 39(13):4929-4937.

Williams, P.R.D., D.J. Paustenbach, and K. Robinson.  2005.  Benzene exposures associated with tasks performed on marine vessels (circa 1975 to 2000).  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.  2:586-599.

Williams, P.R.D., and D.J. Paustenbach.  2005.  Characterizing historical industrial hygiene data:  A case study involving benzene exposures at a chemical manufacturing facility (1976–1987).  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene.  2:341-350.


Williams, P.R.D. 2004.  Health risk communication using comparative risk analyses.  Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology.  14: 498-515.

Williams, P.R.D., L. Benton, and P. Sheehan.  2004.  The risk of MTBE relative to other VOCs in public drinking water in California.  Risk Analysis.  24: 621-634.

Williams, P.R.D. 2004.  Risk-benefit analysis of ethanol fuel blends in the U.S.  International Sugar Journal.  106:151-166.


Tsuji, J.S., Williams, P.R.D., M.R. Edwards, K.P. Avadhanam, M.A. Kelsh, D.J. Paustenbach, and P.J. Sheehan.  2003.  Evaluation of mercury in urine as an indicator of exposure to low levels of mercury vapor.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  111:623-630.

Williams, P.R.D., C. Cushing, and P. Sheehan.  2003.  Data available for evaluating the risks and benefits of MTBE and ethanol as alternative fuel oxygenates.  Risk Analysis.  23:1085-1115.

Williams, P.R.D., L. Benton, and P. Sheehan.  2003.  MTBE in California’s drinking water:  A comparison of groundwater versus surface water sources.  Journal of Environmental Forensics.  4:175-189.

Williams, P.R.D., K. Holicky, and D.J. Paustenbach.  2003.  Current methods for evaluating children’s exposures for use in health risk assessment.  Journal of Children’s Health.  1: 41-98.

Williams, P.R.D. and D.J. Paustenbach.  2003.  Reconstruction of benzene exposure for the Pliofilm cohort (1936–1976) using Monte Carlo techniques.  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Part A).  66:677-781.


von Stackelberg, K. and C. Menzie.  2002.   A cautionary note on the use of species presence and absence data in deriving sediment quality criteria.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(2):466-472.

von Stackelberg, K., D. Burmistrov, D.J. Vorhees, T.S. Bridges, and I. Linkov.   2002.  Importance of uncertainty and variability to predicted risks from trophic transfer of PCBs in dredged sediments.  Risk Analysis 22(3):499-512.

von Stackelberg, K., D. Burmistrov, I. Linkov, J. Cura and T.S. Bridges.  2002. The use of spatial modeling in an aquatic food web to estimate exposure and risk.  Science of the Total Environment.  288(1-2):97-110.

Vorhees, D.J., S.B. Kane Driscoll, K. von Stackelberg, J.J. Cura, and T.S. Bridges.  2002.  An evaluation of sources of uncertainty in a dredged material assessment.  Human and Ecological Risk Assessment.  8(2):369-389.

Williams, P.R.D., L. Benton, J. Warmerdam, and P. Sheehan.  2002.  Comparative risk analysis of six volatile organic compounds in California drinking water.  Environmental Science and Technology.  36:4721–4728.

Williams, P.R.D., and P. Sheehan.  2002.  Overview of MTBE and TBA exposures and health risk in the U.S.  Contaminated Soil Sediment & Water.  93-103.

Williams, P.R.D., and D.J. Paustenbach.  2002.  Risk characterization: principles and practice.  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Part B).  5:337-406.


Linkov, I., K. von Stackelberg, D. Burmistrov and T.S. Bridges.  2001.  Uncertainty and variability in risk from trophic transfer of contaminants in dredged sediments.  Science of the Total Environment 274:255-269.

Williams, P.R.D. 2001.  MTBE in California drinking water:  An analysis of patterns and trends.  Journal of Environmental Forensics.  2:75–85.

Williams, P.R.D., and P.J. Sheehan.  2001.  A better perspective on the incidence and implications of MTBE in California’s drinking water.  Contaminated Soil Sediment and Water 23–28.

Williams, P.R.D., and J.K. Hammitt.  2001.  Perceived risks of conventional and organic produce: pesticides, pathogens, and natural toxins.  Risk Analysis.  21:319–330.


Williams, P.R.D., P.K. Scott, P. J. Sheehan, and D.J. Paustenbach.  2000.  A probabilistic assessment of household exposures to MTBE in California drinking water.  Human and Ecological Risk Assessment.  6:827–849.

Williams, P.R.D., P.K. Scott, S.M. Hays, and D.J. Paustenbach.  2000.  A screening level assessment of household exposures to MTBE in California drinking water.  Soil Sediment and Groundwater.  63–69.

Williams, P.R.D., and J.K. Hammitt.  2000.  A comparison of organic and conventional fresh produce buyers in the Boston area.  Risk Analysis.  20:735–746.

Prior to 2000

Burmaster, D.E. and  K. von Stackelberg.  1992.  A discussion of the US EPA methodology for determining water quality standards (WQS).  Quality Assurance, Good Practice, Regulation and Law 1(3):192-206.

Burmaster, D.E. and K. von Stackelberg.  1991.  Using Monte Carlo simulations in public health risk assessment:  estimating and presenting full distributions of risk.  J. Exposure Anal. Environ. Epidemiol.  1(4):491-512.

von Stackelberg, K., C.A. Menzie, and J.J. Cura.  1995.  Risk Assessment: Helping to Focus Risk Management Objectives for MGP Sites.  Land Contamination & Reclamation, 3(4):24 29.  Presented at the International Symposium and Trade Fair on the Clean up of Manufactured Gas Plants, September 19 21, Prague, Czech Republic.

von Stackelberg, K. 1994.  A discussion on the use of probabilistic risk assessment in human health impact assessment.  Environ. Impact Assessment Rev. J. 14:385-401.

von Stackelberg, K. and T. Russo.  1994.  Sustainable development: assessing impacts of power projects.  Independent Energy, 24(1):51-55.

von Stackelberg, K. and D. Burmaster.  1993.  Compounding conservatism: a discussion of US EPA methodology for conducting public health risk assessments.  HazMat World 6(3):46-47.


enviro-exp2 von Stackelberg, K., W.T. Wickwire and D. Burmistrov. 2005. “Spatially-explicit exposure modeling tools for use in human health and ecological risk assessment: SEEM and FISHRAND-Migration” in Environmental Exposure and Health, M.M. Aral, C.A. Brebbia, M.L. Maslia and T. Sinks, Eds., United Kingdom: WIT Press, pp. 279-288.
Williams, P.R.D., and D.J. Paustenbach.  2002.  Risk characterization.  In:  Human and Ecological Risk Assessment:  Theory and Practice.  D.J. Paustenbach (editor), pp. 293–366.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Williams, P.R.D., and P.J. Sheehan.  2003.  Risk assessment.  In:  MTBE Remediation Handbook.  E.E. Moyer and P.T. Kostecki (editors), pp. 121–167.  Amherst Scientific, Massachusetts.
Williams, P.R.D. 2000.  The risk analysis framework:  Risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.  In:  Indoor Air Quality Handbook.  J.D. Spengler, J.M. Sarnet, and J.F. McCarthy (editors), pp. 70.3–70.38.  McGraw Hill, Inc., New York.

von Stackelberg, K., S. Luoma, R. McCormick, K. Scrabis, E. Dorward-King and S. Polasky.  2007. “Complexity in Ecological Systems”, chapter in Valuation of Ecological Resources: Integration of Ecological Risk Assessment and Socio-economics to Support Environmental Decisions.  Stahl, R.G., Kapustka, L., Munns, W. and Bruins, R. (Eds).   Pensacola, FL:  SETAC Press.
publications-5 Menzie, C.A., Booth, P., Law, S., and K. von Stackelberg.  2009.  Use of decision support systems to address contaminated coastal sediments:  Experience in the United States.  In Decision Support Systems for Risk Based Management of Contaminated Sites.  Marcomini, A., Suter, G.W. and A. Critto, Eds.  Springer-Verlag.Johnson, M.S., Korcz, M., K. von Stackelberg and B. Hope.   2009.  Spatial analytical techniques for risk based decision support systems.  In Decision Support Systems for Risk Based Management of Contaminated Sites.  Marcomini, A., Suter, G.W. and A. Critto, Eds.  Springer-Verlag.

von Stackelberg K.  2011.  Energy systems and health:  Power generation.  In Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, J. Nriagu, Ed. London, England:  Elsevier.

von Stackelberg K.  2011.  Overview of PCBs.  In Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, J. Nriagu, Ed. London, England:  Elsevier.

Sunderland ES, Knightes CD, von Stackelberg K and NA Stiber.  2010.  Environmental fate and bioaccumulation modeling at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:  Applications to inform decision making.  In Modelling of Pollutants in Complex Environmental Systems Volume II.  United Kingdom:  ILM Publications.

Williams, P., Hubbell, B.J., Weber, E., Fehrenbacher, C., Hrdy, D., and Zartarian, V.  2010.  An overview of exposure assessment models used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  In Modelling of Pollutants in Complex Environmental Systems.  Volume 2.  G. Hanrahan, Ed.  ILM Publications, UK.     

Linkov, I., and K. von Stackelberg.  1999.  Pilot elicitation of expert judgments on model parameters and research needs in forest radioecology.  Pp. 409-417 In Contaminated Forests, Eds. I Linkov and W.R. Schell., Netherlands:  Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Journal Articles

Book Chapters